In late autumn, the sky is as blue as a mirror, and the sun shines into the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region Museum. Although it has just opened its doors to welcome visitors, there are already people coming and going in the museum hall.
Xinjiang, as the hub of the ancient Silk Road, has been an area inhabited by many ethnic groups since ancient times. All ethnic groups have always taken root in the fertile soil of Chinese civilization. Through exchanges and interactions, they have preserved their long-standing cultural heritage and created a splendid and colorful history and culture. Important members of the family who are connected by blood and share a common destiny.
In recent years, cultural relics workers in Xinjiang have thoroughly implemented the spirit of General Secretary Xi Jinping’s series of important instructions and the major decisions and arrangements of the Party Central Committee and the State Council. They have adhered to the work requirements of protecting first, strengthening management, exploring value, effectively utilizing, and making cultural relics come alive, and constantly strengthened Cultural relics work plays a role in empirical historical evidence and publicity and education. A number of archaeological research results are eye-catching. A number of precious cultural relics have been properly preserved. Museum exhibitions have been innovated. The revitalization and utilization of cultural relics have been continuously promoted. Cultural enrichment has been deeply rooted in the hearts of the people. The security situation of cultural relics has continued. For the better, it outlines a historical picture of exchanges, exchanges and integration among various ethnic groups.
Explore the historical development of Xinjiang and explain the diversity and unity of Chinese civilization
The Tongtian Cave site in Jimunai County fills the archaeological gap of the Paleolithic Age in Xinjiang. The Jirentaigoukou site in Nileke County has become the most spectacular prehistoric settlement relic discovered by archaeologists in the Ili River Basin. The Keyakkuduk Fengsui site in Yuli County was discovered for the first time in the Tang Dynasty. The actual wooden slips written in ancient Han Dynasty… A series of archaeological discoveries in Xinjiang are eye-catching.
Exterior view of Tongtian Cave ruins in Jimuna County
Pottery molds, copper knives, stone pestles, etc. were unearthed from the Jirentaigokou site in Nilek County
In recent years, with the strong support of the State Administration of Cultural Heritage, Xinjiang has actively promoted the major “Archaeology of China” project, continuously strengthened its archaeological excavation research and interpretation capabilities, deepened the study of Chinese civilization history, effectively served the cultural enrichment of Xinjiang, and fully explored the history of exchanges between various ethnic groups in Xinjiang. Facts, archaeological objects, and cultural relics can explore the historical development of Xinjiang and explain the diversity and unity of Chinese civilization.
“In the eyes of many archaeologists, Xinjiang is a paradise for archaeological work.” Dang Zhihao, deputy director of the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region Institute of Cultural Relics and Archeology, said frankly, “Mainly due to its unique geographical location and natural environment. Xinjiang was once a It is the only channel for exchanges between Eastern and Western civilizations, where the four major ancient civilizations met, exchanged and blended, leaving behind rich and diverse cultural relics. This is an important reason why Xinjiang archeology attracts so much attention from the academic community.”
The dry climate environment provides favorable conditions for the complete preservation of organic cultural relics. “In Xinjiang, we can see many relatively precious organic cultural relics and important remains of multicultural and multi-religious cultures. This is also a unique feature of Xinjiang’s archeology. “Dang Zhihao said.
The reporter learned that sorting out Xinjiang’s historical and cultural context, its role in the origin and development of Chinese civilization, and its role in the exchanges between Chinese civilization and world civilizations are currently important tasks for archaeological work in Xinjiang.
“Starting from 2018, archaeological work in Xinjiang has mainly focused on themes such as prehistoric cultural sequence and its evolution, the formation and development of a unified multi-ethnic country, as well as the spread of diverse religions and the process of Sinicization.” Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region Institute of Cultural Relics and Archeology Introduction by Deputy Director Dang Zhihao.
In recent years, archaeological work in Xinjiang has achieved a series of results. The research on prehistoric archaeological fauna types in Xinjiang has been further in-depth. The Tongtian Cave site in Jimunai County has become an important basis for constructing the flora types from the Stone Age to the Iron Age in northern Xinjiang; Husta in Wenquan County, Jirentaigokou in Nilek County, and Haizi in Hami City The excavation and arrangement of Yan and other sites have revealed the development trends of different cultures in the Bronze Age in the Tianshan region. Research on the effective jurisdictional system of the central government of past dynasties and the cultural identity of national management have been continuously clarified. The excavation of the ancient city of Zhuolkut in Luntai County has promoted the exploration and research of the ruins of the Protectorate of the Western Regions in the Western Han Dynasty. The excavation of the Shichengzi ruins in Qitai County has demonstrated the border affairs of the Han Dynasty. County Military Building Regulations. The excavations of Beiting Ancient City in Jimusar County, Wushtur in Kuqa City, Tangchaodun in Qitai County, and Keyakkuduk Beacon Fireworks in Yuli County have advanced the development of Anxi and Beiting Protectorate in the Tang Dynasty and their The archaeological research on the state and county management and military transmission systems under the governance system, and the excavation of the ancient cities of Dalet in Bole City and Hannoi in Kashgar City have demonstrated the characteristics of border city sites in the Liao, Song and Yuan dynasties, and reproduced the prosperity of the Silk Road. Multi-religious archeology has become a highlight of Xinjiang’s archeology. Archaeological sites such as the Nestorian sites in the west of Turpan City, the Moor Temple site in Kashgar City, and the Tuyugou Grotto Temple in Bushan County have revealed the spread, integration, and sinicization process of ancient Xinjiang’s multi-religious religions.
“Han Peng Fu” Unearthed from Keyak Kuduk Fengsui
In addition to archaeological excavation, scientific and technological protection and cultural relic restoration are also key tasks of the Xinjiang Institute of Cultural Relics and Archeology. Walking into the Cultural Relics Protection Technology Department of the Institute of Archeology, young cultural relic restorer Diao Yu was meticulously restoring an unearthed silk fabric. Her colleagues were also restoring pottery, bronzes and other cultural relics in an orderly manner.
Diao Yu, a young cultural relic restorer, is meticulously restoring unearthed cultural relics.
Dang Zhihao said that in recent years, in conjunction with archaeological excavations, we have restored more than a thousand sets of unearthed cultural relics such as pottery, bronze, iron, gold, textiles, wood, and paper documents. In order to further improve the level of archaeological excavation site protection and cultural relic protection and restoration, we have joined forces with the Shaanxi Archaeological Research Institute, China Silk Museum, Nanjing Museum, etc. to apply for 8 special protection and restoration research projects on textiles, paper, etc. At the same time, relying on the Xinjiang workstations of four key scientific research bases of the State Administration of Cultural Heritage, we carry out multi-disciplinary cooperation in biogenetics, animals and plants, metallurgy, environment, material analysis, etc., in order to comprehensively extract archaeological remains information, scientifically interpret the value connotation of cultural relics and sites, and broaden the scope of Xinjiang Provide important support in the field of archaeological research.
“In addition, we have also focused our energy on the compilation and interpretation of archaeological results, and have compiled and published a number of important archaeological reports.” Dang Zhihao told reporters that while Xinjiang’s archaeological work effectively protects historical and cultural heritage, it also actively explores and provides cultural relic services. Ways and forms to promote society and serve Xinjiang’s history and culture. By opening up archaeological sites and holding public archaeological activities such as “Archaeological Voices – Expert Talks”, Xinjiang archeology has gained more and more attention from the public, its influence has continued to expand, and it has provided academic support for effectively serving Xinjiang culturally.
Revealing the exchanges, exchanges and integration of various ethnic groups to build a solid sense of community for the Chinese nation
On an ordinary working day, the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region Museum opened on time to welcome visitors for a new day.
The brocade “Wish all the world good luck, wealth and longevity for the National Day” is on display at the “Xinjiang Historical and Cultural Relics Exhibition”, and the passing audiences stopped one after another. The brocade “Wish you prosperity and longevity in the world for the National Day” was unearthed from the Gutai Cemetery in the old city of Loulan. The remaining length of the brocade is 22.8 cm and width is 34.3 cm. The cloud patterns on it are elegant and smart, and the images of auspicious animals are vivid. The pattern is interspersed with the inscription “Wish you the world in prosperity.” This kind of cultural relic with the words “National Day” is very rare in the country, and it is also very precious.
“During the Qin and Han Dynasties, China’s silk production and trade entered a mature and prosperous stage. A large number of silk fabrics from the Central Plains were discovered in Xinjiang, among which the largest number of silk fabrics were unearthed from Niya and Loulan. The patterns of silk fabrics in the Han Dynasty were rich and diverse, and the terminology was also very particular, especially those with The tapestry of auspicious sayings is mostly ordered by the imperial court or given as a reward. These tapestry not only demonstrates the recognition of Chinese culture in Xinjiang, but also witnesses the past exchanges and integration of various ethnic groups.” Deputy Director of the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region Museum of Culture and Museum Chang Yu Zhiyong said.
“Wish all the world good fortune and longevity for the National Day” brocade
According to reports, the “Xinjiang Historical and Cultural Relics Exhibition” closely follows the value analysis of the history of national governance of Xinjiang, the history of exchanges and integration of the Chinese nation, and the history of mutual learning among civilizations along the Silk Road. It displays more than 1,700 fine cultural relics from the pre-Qin period to the Qing Dynasty. , among which nearly 500 new exhibits are shown to the public for the first time.
“These precious cultural relics are important evidence that systematically illustrates the governance and jurisdiction of Xinjiang by the central governments of past dynasties. They are precious evidence that accurately reveals the historical connotation of exchanges, exchanges and integration of various ethnic groups. They are scientific evidence that deepens and expands the history of the Chinese nation community and the study of the pluralistic unity of the Chinese nation. Historical evidence is a vivid material that solidifies the consciousness of the Chinese nation’s community, tells the story of China’s Xinjiang well, and demonstrates the cultural confidence of the Chinese nation.” Yu Zhiyong said.
Upper left: Kaiyuan Tongbao Upper right: Eastern Roman gold coins
Lower left: Gaochang auspicious money Lower right: Kucha five baht
Audiences visit Xinjiang historical and cultural relics exhibition
The reporter saw that the “Xinjiang Historical and Cultural Relics Exhibition” exhibition hall was crowded, and it has become normal for more and more people to enter the museum.
Talking about how to better serve the public, Yu Zhiyong told reporters, “The key is that the museum’s curatorial content should be rich, and the explanation content should be knowledgeable and popular. We closely follow the new form of museum craze, actively plan Xinjiang historical and cultural relics themed exhibitions, and fully explore The advantageous endowments of Xinjiang’s historical and cultural resources can be used to tell the historical stories of each country’s governance of Xinjiang and the exchanges and exchanges between various ethnic groups by using Xinjiang’s large number of woolen fabrics, brocades of the Han and Tang Dynasties, and documents of the Jin and Tang Dynasties. Let the cultural relics have a voice and let history speak. .”
Xinjiang is an important route of the ancient Silk Road, where Eastern and Western cultures exchanged and blended, and the large amount of cultural heritage left behind reproduces the prosperity of the past.
At the southern foot of the East Tianshan Mountains and the northern edge of the Turpan Basin, surrounded by river valleys, on a willow leaf-shaped island platform about 30 meters high, the Jiaohe Old City has stood quietly for more than 2,000 years. Jiaohe City is an early city in Xinjiang. It was originally the royal city of the Cheshi Kingdom. In 640 AD, the Anxi Protectorate established by the Tang Dynasty was originally located in Jiaohe City.
Walking into the Old City of Jiaohe, you can still vaguely see the streets, workshops, government offices, and residential buildings. Walking through the footsteps and light and shadow left by the Han, Sogdians, and Uighurs thousands of years ago, you can seem to hear the sound of camel bells and the bustle of merchants thousands of years ago. .
Jiaohe Ancient City Terrace
“Jiaohe Ancient City has witnessed the existence and characteristics of civilizations such as the Cheshi, the Gaochang Kingdom, and the Gaochang Uighurs in the ancient Western Regions. It has witnessed the frontier management model such as the ‘Duhufu’ and its important guarantee for Silk Road exchanges. It has demonstrated the cultural heritage along the Silk Road. The exchanges and dissemination of urban culture, construction technology, Buddhism and multi-ethnic culture collectively demonstrate the glorious history and integrated multi-culture created by all ethnic groups, and strongly prove that Xinjiang has been an inseparable part of the motherland since ancient times.” Turpan Institute of Studies Vice President Chen Aifeng said.
“The north wind blows the ground and the white grass folds, and the sky is full of snow in August.” Cen Shen, a poet of the Tang Dynasty, once described the scenery of Beiting in the poem “Song of White Snow Sending Magistrate Wu Back to Beijing”.
In the Beiting National Archaeological Site Park located in Jimusar County, the setting sun shines on the early yellow poplar trees, and the golden reeds everywhere sway in the wind. The Beiting archaeological team led by Guo Wu, a researcher at the Institute of Archeology of the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, is inside Excavation of Site No. 1 on the platform outside the north gate of the city.
“The King’s Journey” on the west wall of the 105th side hall of the Beiting West Temple Ruins
Beiting Old City is divided into two parts: inner and outer. The inner city is Tingzhou City. Slab tiles, tube tiles and square bricks with lotus patterns from the Tang Dynasty were unearthed in the city. The outer city was expanded to the north, west and south of Tingzhou City after Tingzhou was promoted to the Beiting Protectorate in 702 AD. Beiting Ancient City has unearthed the Tang Dynasty bronze official seal “Puleizhou Seal” and high-level bronze lions, stone lions, grape-patterned bronze mirrors, Kaiyuan Tongbao coins, carved stone balls, sewer pipes and pottery, etc.
Guo Wu believes that the ruins of the Beiting Ancient City are the site and witness of history. Beiting archeology has physically proved the effective jurisdiction of the Central Plains dynasty in Xinjiang and the prosperity of the Silk Road from the Tang to the Song and Yuan Dynasties, especially the Tang Dynasty. Related discoveries and research play an irreplaceable role in forging the consciousness of the Chinese nation’s community and building a community with a shared future for mankind, and are of great practical significance in promoting ethnic unity, prosperity, stability and long-term peace and order in Xinjiang society.
Xinjiang has a long border, but there is one cultural relic that plays a prominent role in protecting the territory of the motherland. That is the Pingding Junggarle Monument located on Gedeng Mountain on the border more than 50 kilometers southwest of Zhaosu County, Ili Kazakh Autonomous Prefecture. Local people call it A monument for Gedeng.
The inscription on the pacification of Junggarle
Standing on Gedeng Mountain, you can see far into the distance. At the foot of the mountain, the Sumubai River, the border river between China and Kazakhstan, flows meanderingly. The villages of Kazakhstan on the opposite side are clearly visible. The view of the Teks River Valley is wide, and the snow-capped peaks of the Tianshan Mountains stretch endlessly in the distance.
“In order to protect the Gedeng Stele, the State Administration of Cultural Heritage has allocated funds many times to repair the stele pavilion and the main body.” An Yingxin, a researcher at the Yili Prefecture Museum, told reporters that the inscription records in detail the Qing army’s battle and glorious achievements in pacifying Junggar, tracing back to the Central Committee of the Han and Tang Dynasties. The history and grand occasion of the regime’s “Han setting up protective guards and Tang worshiping generals” in the northwest border areas. The Gedeng Monument is an important witness for the Qing government to suppress rebellion and maintain national unity and border stability. It has important historical and practical significance for opposing ethnic divisions, strengthening ethnic unity, and developing and constructing border areas.
Cultural relics benefit the people and are deeply rooted in the hearts of the people. Culture nourishes the territory and becomes a cultural phenomenon.
“If you haven’t visited Kashgar, you haven’t been to Xinjiang; if you haven’t visited the ancient city, you haven’t been to Kashgar.” I don’t know who first coined this sentence. It has attracted countless tourists to come here, but it is enough to illustrate the charm of the ancient city of Kashgar.
Being in the ancient city of Kashgar, people cannot notice the passage of time. It is like “traveling” to the years a hundred years ago and having a “time dialogue” at any time.
In a small alley in the west district of the ancient city of Kashgar, there is a long queue in front of the “Grandpa’s Grandpa’s Dad’s Nang” shop, with tourists patiently waiting for the fragrant naan to come out of the oven. On the square table in front of the shop, 35-year-old Wumaierjiang Tudi was very busy with his apprentice. “Our family has lived in the ancient city of Kashgar for generations and made a living by making naan. It has a history of hundreds of years. I am the seventh generation. “As more and more tourists come to the ancient city of Kashgar, the days of Wumaierjiang Tudi are becoming more and more prosperous.
As of mid-July this year, the Kashgar Ancient City Scenic Spot has received more than 4.1 million tourists in 2023, an increase of 56% compared with the same period in 2022 and a record high.
Kashgar ancient city
The ancient city of Kashgar is the first historical and cultural city in Xinjiang. Adiljan Abdulkader, chief of the Publicity Section of the Ancient City Scenic Area Management Committee, believes that all this is closely related to the overall repair and protection of Kashgar. “In the renovation project of dilapidated houses in the old city of Kashgar, the project is carried out in accordance with the principle of one household, one design, repairing the old buildings as before, and protecting the historical features. At the same time, the excellent residential buildings in the ancient city are listed and protected, and the renovation project is carried out in accordance with the method of repairing the old houses as before. Reinforcement and protection will allow Kashgar’s historical features to be completely preserved.”
At present, the ancient city scenic spot integrates 23 types of businesses, driving the employment and entrepreneurship of 14,000 residents and outsiders in the ancient city. The protection results of the ancient city are increasingly benefiting people living in the ancient city like Wumaierjiang Tudi.
In addition to the ancient city of Kashgar, the cultural relics protection project of Karez is also a model of “projects to enrich and benefit the people”. Karez, known as the “underground canal”, is one of the three major projects in ancient my country along with the Great Wall and the Beijing-Hangzhou Grand Canal. It is now a national key cultural relic protection unit. There are 1,108 karez wells in Turpan, with a total length of about 6,500 kilometers, of which the total length of culverts is about 3,724 kilometers, like “blood vessels”, covering the “whole body” of Turpan. Melted ice and snow water irrigates sweet grapes, nourishing the children of all ethnic groups in Turpan.
Comparison before and after repair of karez open channel and shaft mouth
The karez is a historical witness of the unity and struggle of people of all ethnic groups, and it still plays a role today, benefiting the people along the line. In order to further protect, inherit and utilize karez wells, the State Administration of Cultural Heritage invested funds to carry out 7 phases of protection and repair of a total of 165 karez wells, expanding the functions of karez waterlogging dams. At the same time, we continue to carry out work to improve the display of karez culture and improve the micro-environment, which has greatly improved the living environment of the surrounding people.
In the karez cultural relics protection project, the “cultural relics protection project + villagers” model is implemented, using the slack period to carry out protection construction, hiring local villagers as direct participants in the karez protection and repair work, helping the villagers around the karez protection project implementation area to increase their income and become rich, and to dig karez wells. The inheritance and development of fishing techniques have led to an increase in income of more than 5,000 yuan for the villagers who participated in the maintenance where the project is implemented, becoming a model of cultural relic protection in the new era that enriches, educates, and benefits the people.
Turpan has many cultural relics and profound historical and cultural connotations. It is the pioneer area of Xinjiang’s cultural enrichment. When talking about the role of cultural relics in cultural enrichment of Xinjiang, Chen Aifeng believes that cultural enrichment is a silent process of nourishing things, and the core is the contribution to China Cultural identity gradually solidifies the consciousness of the Chinese nation’s community, and cultural relics play a very important role in this.
“Cultural relics can be placed in front of us. For example, the documents unearthed in Turpan include a large number of Confucian classics, The Analects of Confucius, The Classic of Filial Piety, and a collection of classics and history. What are these?” Chen Aifeng answered to himself, “This is an important part of Chinese culture. Part. Through the interpretation and display of cultural relics, we show the historical connotations contained in cultural relics to the public, which is an important carrier that effectively forges the consciousness of the Chinese nation’s community in a tangible and tangible way.”
Build a solid bottom line for the safety of cultural relics and weave a dense “safety net” for cultural relics
On the morning of autumn, 51-year-old Maimaiti Yiliyazi walked around the ruins of the ancient city of Ravchok on the upper reaches of the Baiyang River as usual. If he found anyone suspicious, he would stop them from entering. If he found anything suspicious, he would Report immediately.
Maimaiti Yiliyazi is the cultural relics caretaker of the ancient city ruins of Ravchok and surrounding cultural relics. During the interview, the reporter learned that Maimaiti Yiliyazi is a villager in Gaodege Village, Yizhou District, Hami City. His family has 30 acres of land and he is very busy during busy farming hours. However, no matter how busy the farm work is, he does it every day. Walking around the ancient city of Ravchok and surrounding cultural relics, I have been doing this every day for 26 years without interruption.
When asked why, he told reporters, “When I was a child, my father was a cultural relic caretaker. Influenced by my father since I was a child, I am familiar with the topography, layout and direction of the roads in the Baiyang River Basin and surrounding areas, and I have a strong sense of responsibility for protecting cultural relics.” Heart. After my father passed away, I followed his footsteps and embarked on the road of protecting cultural relics.”
Panoramic view of Lafchok Cemetery in Hami City
Xinjiang has a vast territory, so how to protect the safety of wild cultural relics is a big problem, and cultural relic caretakers provide practical ways to ensure the safety of wild cultural relics.
In order to further enhance the safety and protection of cultural relics in Xinjiang, since 2017, the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region government has allocated special funds every year to establish a team of 950 field cultural relics caretakers to be responsible for the daily patrol of key field cultural relics. In order to continue to strengthen team management, the “Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region Field Cultural Relics Caregivers Management Measures (Trial)” was issued to promote the institutionalization and standardization of the management of field cultural relics caretakers, and incorporate their management and performance into daily cultural relics safety inspection and supervision work.
In the daily work of cultural relics caretakers, local cultural relics administrative departments actively urge jurisdictions to formulate reasonable inspection plans, sign annual cultural relics safety responsibility letters with caretakers, clarify responsibilities and rights, rewards and penalties, and regularly conduct inspections on the performance of field cultural relics caretakers. Field inspection. Use face-to-face, WeChat, phone and other methods to guide caregivers to perform their duties in a standardized manner, urge caregivers to record inspection logs, discover and report inspection problems in a timely manner, and ensure the safety of the cultural relics themselves and surrounding areas.
As of December 2022, Xinjiang field cultural relics rangers have guarded and inspected more than 520 key field cultural relics protection units. Hami City rangers have conducted more than 3,000 safety inspections annually; Bozhou rangers have conducted more than 2,100 safety inspections annually; In the Ertala Mongolian Autonomous Prefecture, 8 cultural relic safety hazards have been eliminated by caretakers every year; caretakers in Turpan City, Tacheng, Altay, Hotan and other regions actively reported more than 10 safety developments or clues to safety cases, assisting the cultural relics department in investigating cultural relics safety cases. , actively play the role of caretakers and effectively improve the safety environment of wild cultural relics.
Keeping the bottom line firmly and ensuring the safety of cultural relics are the “basic skills” of cultural relics work.
In addition to establishing a field cultural relics caretaker system, Xinjiang has continued to promote cultural relics safety in recent years, establishing cultural relics safety inspections and case supervision, rewards for reporting cultural relics violations, emergency plans for cultural relics emergencies, combating and preventing cultural relics crimes, and handover management of cultural relics involved in cases. systems, methods or long-term mechanisms. Promote the cultural relics safety project, implement 8 security projects including the Kizil Thousand Buddha Caves security upgrade and renovation project, carry out a search for “Xinjiang’s most beautiful cultural relics safety guardians” activities, and create a good atmosphere for social participation in cultural relics protection. Deepening cooperation with relevant industry departments, more than 22,000 cultural relics safety inspections were carried out, and more than 1,000 hidden dangers were discovered and rectified. The cultural relics “safety net” was tightly woven and the cultural relics safety work achieved remarkable results.
Xinjiang, as a key node on the historical Silk Road, has witnessed the exchanges and integration of various ethnic groups, demonstrating the diversity, unity and continuity of Chinese civilization. Today, this ancient land nourished by thousands of years of cultural heritage is showing great vitality and continues to write a new chapter of ethnic exchanges and integration in the new era.